The Working Principle Of Flexible Heaters In Thermal Printers


A flexible heater is a sheet-like device that can be bent and folded to a certain extent and can generate heat when powered on. It has the advantages of high heating efficiency, good heat dissipation, and high surface power density. Because it is coated on an insulating substrate, it can be made into various complex heating devices. In recent years, flexible heaters have been widely used in construction, industry, agriculture, military, household products and other fields to solve heating, defrosting, fogging or heating problems. This paper designed and researched the flexible heater, including simulating the temperature field distribution on the surface of the film heater, designing the layout of the heating conductor, preparing the insulating heat-conducting film and the insulating heat-insulating film, and designing and testing the control system of the film heater. 

 Flexible heater applications

The role of flexible heaters in thermal printers is extremely important. Thermal printer is a common printing device that uses the interaction of a heater and thermal paper to produce an image. The main function of the heater is to convert electrical energy into thermal energy, by heating the photosensitive layer on the thermal paper, causing it to undergo a chemical reaction to form an image.


Flexible heaters are usually made of conductive materials such as aluminum, copper, and nickel-chromium alloys. When the heater is powered on, electrical energy is converted into heat energy, and the heater surface temperature increases. The photosensitive layer on thermal paper is composed of heat-sensitive materials and has reaction sensitivity. When the photosensitive layer is subjected to thermal energy transferred by a heater, its chemical structure changes, thereby changing color or forming an image. Normally, the photosensitive layer will change from white to black, forming clear text or patterns.

So how does the heating system of the flexible heater work?

The flexible heater uses a multifunctional, lightweight metal heating material in its design and production, which can quickly and effectively heat any surface. The shape of the heater can be adjusted according to the needs of the application product, and has the advantage of being bendable and foldable. At the same time, a temperature control device can be added to the heater. When the printer reaches a certain temperature, the heater can be stopped for heating to avoid damage to the product due to excessive temperature.

Flexible heater applications

Function of flexible heater in thermal printer

The working process of a thermal printer can be simply described as: when the user sends a printing command, the printer control system will pass the command to the heater. The heater starts working in the printer and transfers heat energy to the photosensitive layer of the thermal paper. When the photosensitive layer is heated, a chemical reaction occurs to form an image. The printer controls the clarity and brightness of the image by controlling the temperature and time of the heater. After finishing printing, the printer will send the paper out and wait for the next print job, and the cycle will be applied like this.

 Flexible heater applications

Generally speaking, the role of the heater in a thermal printer is to convert electrical energy into thermal energy, and by heating the photosensitive layer on the thermal paper, a chemical reaction occurs to form an image. This working principle makes thermal printers have the advantages of low noise and simple structure, and are widely used in fields such as bill printing and label printing. Flexible heaters are used in this application and have the characteristics of fast heating speed, high efficiency and stable application effect. With the continuous development of technology, thermal printers will play an important role in more application scenarios.


Designs and manufactures high-quality flexible heaters and thermal systems for use in medical devices, instrumentation, and diagnostic and semiconductor equipment. Danyu Technology provides rapid turnaround of new designs and in-house supply capabilities at all levels of the design and manufacturing process. We are committed to providing our customers with international standard services and manufacturing products of the highest quality. We strive to exceed our customers' expectations within stipulated deadlines without compromising on the quality of our products.